How Much Water Actually Goes Into Making A Bottle Of Water?
By Thomas Andrew Gustafson
Environmental activists have long claimed that bottled water is wasteful. Usually, they point to the roughly 50 billion (mostly plastic) bottles we throw away every year.
The International Bottled Water Association, ever sensitive to criticism that it’s wasting precious resources, has commissioned its first ever study to figure out how much water goes into producing one liter. The results, released this month, show that for North American companies, it takes 1.39 liters to make one liter of water.
That’s less than the global averages of a liter of soda, which requires 2.02 liters of water. A liter of beer, meanwhile, needs 4 liters of water, wine demands 4.74 liters. Hard alcohol, it turns out, is the greediest, guzzling 34.55 liters of water for every liter.
This, the bottled water industry says, is evidence that its product isn’t so bad. “Bottled water products are extremely efficient in terms of water use compared to some other packaged beverages,” says Chris Hogan, spokesman for the International Bottled Water Association.
But water activists say the IBWA study highlights a problem throughout the beverage industry: Few companies take the whole water-use picture into account when calculating their water use. Just as companies are beginning to calculate their carbon footprint, they also need to analyze their water footprints to find opportunities for conservation.
Unknown British Artist
Portrait of Paul Cuffe/Cuffee
England (c. 1880)
oil on canvas, 64.1 x 52.1 cm.
Stuart P. Feld collection, NY, NY
The Image of the Black in Western Art Research Project and Photo Archive, W.E.B. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research, Harvard University
Paul Cuffee (1759-1817) was a man of Aquinnah Wampanoag and West African Ashanti descent, Quaker businessman, ship owner, navigator, abolitionist and also founded the first racially integrated school in Westport, Massachusetts. He was the founder of the Friendly Society of Sierra Leone, and organized expeditions that facilitated emigration of free Blacks from the United States to Sierra Leone and the newly independent Haiti.
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This area is fascinating and has a detailed composition that I can’t adequately express in words. So I’ll let Wikipedia do it instead.
Kowloon Walled City was a densely populated, largely ungoverned settlement in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Originally a Chinesemilitary fort, the Walled City became an enclave after the New Territories were leased to Britain in 1898. Its population increased dramatically following the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong during World War II. In 1987, the Walled City contained 33,000 residents within its 6.5-acre (0.026 km2; 0.0102 sq mi) borders. From the 1950s to the 1970s, it was controlled by Triads and had high rates of prostitution, gambling, and drug use.
In January 1987, the Hong Kong government announced plans to demolish the Walled City. After an arduous eviction process, demolition began in March 1993 and was completed in April 1994. Kowloon Walled City Park opened in December 1995 and occupies the area of the former Walled City. Some historical artifacts from the Walled City, including its yamen building and remnants of its South Gate, have been preserved there.
How does one warn people about a danger that lasts for 10,000 years? These images were theoretical means by which future humans of uncertain language or social complexity could be warned away from radioactive sites, especially buried nuclear waste. Use of facial expressions, intimidating structure and durable building materials come together in this proposed design.
Some sexy costume ideas for the imperialist statists out there.
Various aerial photos of factory farms near small bodies of water.
Interesting comic exploring the effects and presence of racism, including through indirect benefit or hindrance.
Dresden before and after Allied bombing campaigns. This city became famous for the massive devastation wrought by the bombers, including the presence of fire storms.